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In print

Negotiating Water Rights
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Negotiating Water Rights

Edited by Bryan Randolph Bruns and Ruth S. Meinzen-Dick
Published by Intermediate Technology Publications, 103/105 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4HH, UK in asociation with the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Email: orders@itpubs.org.uk Website http://www.itpubs.org.uk
2000, 394pp., ISBN 1 85339 484 X (Pb) £14.95

'Every day the whole configuration of water division was different even though the current official rule was continuous flow with proportional allocation to fields.' So is this an elaborate system for sharing water, or downright anarchy? Each of the case studies in Negotiating Water Rights reveals the enormous complexity surrounding individual or community rights to water and the fluid interpretation of statutory and customary law to support a claim or defend a right.

The book is written not as a study of legislation, nor is it concerned with the technical aspects of water delivery beyond simple sketch plans to illustrate the situation under discussion. Nor is it an activist's campaign to assert people's rights. It is a very practical explanation of how disputes have been resolved by water users and, as the title suggests, specifically the role that negotiation has, or has not, played. Because irrigation accounts for more than 70% of water withdrawals worldwide - more in developing countries - the users in question are farmers and it is refreshing that their needs, so often ignored, are recognized. Indeed, if farmers were consulted earlier, it is suggested, there would be less risk of conflict being built into design of water supply projects. The case studies (Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burkina Faso, Spain and New Mexico) are written by different authors and although they vary in readability, all provide an insight into the lives of real people struggling to get a balance between 'justice and enterprise'. The underlying theme is legal pluralism, possibly a daunting word which describes how people use different legal frameworks (government regulations, customary law etc.) or upon different interpretations of the same law, to make their case. The editors suggest these 'overlapping legal repertoires' (one might proffer 'reservoirs') lead to a 'canvas of complications' but also provide opportunities for negotiation.

Large scale water supply structures are not covered. This is a book more concerned with how farming communities work out the sharing of a common source of water from small or medium size irrigation schemes, often constructed by themselves. Given that an early lesson from the book is that uniform prescriptions for sharing water access will not fit well anywhere, where is the value in the book? Perhaps it is simply to learn that lesson; to understand that politicians' involvement may be destructive rather than constructive; that negotiations require the negotiating parties to be on good terms; that those who feel unfairly treated will steal water by stealth or brute force for they cannot live without it. Land rights are a difficult and complex issue. Water rights are worse being 'almost as fluid as the resource itself'. Most disputes about water are not resolved by courts nor by technocrats. They are worked out by the parties involved, sometimes with the help of outsiders. There is much for outsiders to learn. This book would be a good starting point.

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Crop Pollination by Bees
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Crop Pollination by Bees

by Keith S. Delaplane and Daniel F. Mayer
Published by CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK
Email: cabi@cabi.org Website http://www.cabi.org/bookshop
2000, 344pp., ISBN 0 85199 448 2 (Hb) £60/US$100

The value of honey and beeswax pales in comparison to the value of fruits, vegetables, seeds, oils and fibres whose yields are optimized by pollination bees. This book covers the pollination requirements of many flowering plants of commercial importance, describes how they are pollinated and what might inhibit or enhance effective pollination. The focus is on pollinating bees that are important in the temperate developed world, especially North America. See also Focus On Bees

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World Water Vision
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World Water Vision

by William J. Cosgrove and Frank R. Rijsberman
Published by Earthscan, 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, UK
Email: earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk Website http://www.earthscan.co.uk
2000, 108pp., ISBN 1 85383 730 X (Pb) £12.95/US$19.95

If the Vision itself - a world in which all people have access to safe and sufficient water resources to meet their needs in ways that maintain the integrity of freshwater ecosystems - seems obvious, remember that the ultimate purpose of the Vision exercise was to generate global awareness of the water crisis. With 148 meetings and consultations over 18 months, involving 57 partner organizations and culminating in the World Water Forum in The Hague in March (New-Agri 00-4) success was surely guaranteed. This publication explains why there is a crisis, presents the collective Vision and suggests activities and directions to be pursued. A CD giving access to background documentation is attached.

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Nutrients on the moveNutrients on the move

Edited by Thea Hilhorst and Fred Muchena
Published by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, UK
Email: drylands@iied.org Website http://www.iied.org
2000, 146pp., ISBN 1 899825 56 8 (Pb) Free on request to Drylands, IIED

Case studies from six African countries: Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Uganda and Zimbabwe, confirm that the mining of soil nutrients is widespread and inevitable. Commercial, inorganic fertilizers are too expensive for most farming households and organic alternatives such as compost and manure cannot be acquired in the quantities necessary to replace the nutrients removed with the harvested crop. The case studies present details of a wide range of soil fertility management practices currently implemented by small-scale farmers in Africa, not least how to concentrate resources where they can be used to the best effect.

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Managing Soil Fertility in the Tropics. A resource guide.Managing Soil Fertility in the Tropics. A Resource Guide

Edited by Toon Defoer and Arnoud Budelman
Published by The Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, The Netherlands with financial assistance from DFID
Email: kitpress@kit.nl Website http://www.kit.nl
2000, ISBN 90 6832 1285, Dfl100

This Resource Guide, packed in a splendid and sturdy custom-built folder, includes: a textbook (208pp); a collection of case studies that explore field experiences with participatory learning and action research (Benin, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali and Tanzania) (192pp); a set of 12 laminated cards for field use; a CD-ROM and a manual (182pp). Designed to give field workers practical advice on how to work with farmers to improve soil fertility management, it appears to be a comprehensive guide on 'how to do it'.

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The Eucalyptus
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The Eucalyptus

by Robin W. Doughty
Published by The John Hopkins University Press, 2715 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-4363, USA
Email: bkinfo@jhupress.jhu.edu Website http://www.press.jhu.edu
2000, 237pp., ISBN 0 8018 6231 0 (Hb) £31

How did the perception of eucalyptus change so drastically, from the unqualified support of early enthusiasts to thousands of protesting farmers besieging government offices for days on end in opposition to the genus? This natural and commercial history traces the astonishingly rapid rise in popularity of the gum tree, its spread over millions of hectares and the role of colonists and international development agencies in its promotion. Many now abhor the ecological and social disruption of which the tree now stand accused. The author points out that, like it or not, gum trees are here to stay and that the focus should be upon the right site for the right species and for the right reasons.

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Out of the Shadow of Famine. Evolving Food Markets and Food Policy in Bangladesh

Hb £46.22
Pb £23.11

Buy Out of the Shadow of Famine. Evolving Food Markets and Food Policy in Bangladesh

Out of the Shadow of Famine. Evolving Food Markets and Food Policy in Bangladesh

Edited by Raisuddin Ahmed, Steven Haggblade and Tawfiq-e-Elahi Chowdhury
Published by The John Hopkins University Press, 2715 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-4363, USA
Email: bkinfo@jhupress.jhu.edu Website http://www.press.jhu.edu
2000, 308pp., ISBN 0 8018 6333 3 (Hb) £54 or ISBN 0 8018 6476 3 (Pb) £27

In the Great Bengal Famine of 1943, at least 1.5 million people died of starvation. Since independence in 1971, foodgrain production has grown so rapidly that the country is now on the brink of self sufficiency in rice production. This book describes the evolution of food policy in Bangladesh and is based on research by the International Food Policy Research Institute undertaken in the early 1990s in collaboration with Bangladeshi institutions.

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Encouraging Diversity: The conservation and development of plant genetic resources
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Encouraging Diversity: The conservation and development of plant genetic resources

Edited by Conny Almekinders and Walter de Boef
Published by Intermediate Technology Publications, 103/105 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4HH, UK and by IFPRI
Email: orders@itpubs.org.uk Website http://www.itpubs.org.uk
2000, 362pp., ISBN 1 85339 510 2 (Pb) £16.51

The experiences and perspectives of farmers, genebanks, plant breeders, seed programmes and NGOs involved in crop development and conservation are described in short case studies. They illustrate the similarities between problems in the South and the North and suggest guidelines for future development in the management of plant genetic resources.

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Meeting the Challenges of Animal Traction
Meeting the Challenges of Animal Traction
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Meeting the Challenges of Animal Traction

Edited by Paul Starkey and Pascal Kaumbutho
Published by The Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA), PO Box BW540, Borrowdale, Harare, Zimbabwe, in association with Intermediate Technology Publications, 103/105 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4HH, UK and by IFPRI
Email: orders@itpubs.org.uk Website http://www.itpubs.org.uk
1999, 326pp., ISBN 1 85339 483 1 (Pb) £14.95

Containing 53 edited papers prepared by 88 authors from 25 countries, this book provides a wide range of ideas and experiences concerning animal traction.

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Reforming the CAP Economic Affairs, Volume 20, Number 2, June 2000Reforming the CAP Economic Affairs, Volume 20, Number 2, June 2000

Published by The Institute of Economic Affairs in association with Blackwell Publishers Journals, PO Box 805, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK
Email: jnlinfo@blackwellpublishers.co.uk
2000, 64pp., ISSN 0265 0665 (Pb) £5

There can be no doubt that the European Union is a major source of disruption and instability on global agricultural markets but for those who call for the proverbial 'level playing field', what would liberalization of the Common Agricultural Policy mean in practice? One section of the June edition of the quarterly Journal of The Institute of Economic Affairs, models the likely effects for the rest of the world.

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Evolving land rights, policy and tenure in AfricaEvolving land rights, policy and tenure in Africa

Edited by Camilla Toulmin and Julian Quan
Published by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, UK
Email: bookshop@iied.org Website http://www.iied.org
2000, 324pp., ISBN 1 899825 51 7 (Pb) £12.50 (Free to non OECD)

Based on papers presented at a DFID sponsored workshop on Land Rights and Sustainable Development in sub-Saharan Africa, in 1999, the book focuses upon legislative reform, the management of land rights and issues of implementation and policy-making processes. Recent land reform programmes are described and the authors assess the progress made towards more equitable land policies and highlight the challenges for the future.

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Planning and Implementing Sustainable Projects in Developing Countries: Theory, practice and economics.Planning and Implementing Sustainable Projects in Developing Countries: Theory, practice and economics

by Audace I. Kanshahu
Published by AgBé Publishing, PO Box 1, 1050, Brussels 5, Belgium.
Email agbeets@skynet.be
2000, Second and expanded edition. First published 1996 210pp., ISBN 98100 7687 8 X (Pb) US$39

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The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss
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The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss

Edited by Alexander Wood, Pamela Stedman-Edwards and Johanna Mang
Published by WWF-International in association with Earthscan, 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, UK
Email: earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk Website http://www.earthscan.co.uk
2000, 399pp., ISBN 1 85383 699 0 (Pb) £17.95

The loss of biodiversity is widely regretted but, generally speaking, little progress has been made towards halting the trend. The Root Causes Project sets out to answer the question, Why?, and concludes that understanding biodiversity loss requires looking well beyond what is happening at local sites. Case studies from Brazil, Cameroon, China, The Danube River Basin, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Tanzania and Vietnam examine underlying socio-economic causes and form the basis upon which the editors derive recommendations for change.

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Paverty and Inequality in South Africa: Meeting the ChallengePoverty and Inequality in South Africa: Meeting the Challenge

Edited by Julian May
Published by Zed Books Ltd. 7 Cynthia Street, London N1 9JF, UK
www: http://zedbooks.co.uk
2000, 304pp., ISBN 1 85649 808 5 (Pb) £16.95/US$29.95

Based on a report prepared by South African researchers, this book examines the state of the country in terms of education and training, health care, HIV/AIDS, malnutrition, welfare and crime, as well as access to services. Agriculture and irrigation infrastructure are covered only briefly but the comprehensive portrait of the facts about poverty in South Africa, provides a background to the one-third of rural households who are involved in agricultural production.

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